The Creditor's Remedy Against A Debtor's Interest In An LLC Or Partnership
California Charging Order
Cal.C.C.P. § 697.910. Application of article
This article applies to liens created by any of the following:
(a) An examination proceeding as provided in Section 708.110, 708.120, or 708.205.
(b) A creditor’s suit as provided in Section 708.250.
(c) A charging order as provided in Section 708.320.
Cal.C.C.P. § 699.720. Property not subject to execution
(a) The following types of property are not subject to execution:
(1) An alcoholic beverage license that is transferable under Article 5 (commencing with Section 24070) of Chapter 6 of Division 9 of the Business and Professions Code.
(2) The interest of a partner in a partnership or member in a limited liability company if the partnership or the limited liability company is not a judgment debtor.
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(b) Nothing in subdivision (a) affects or limits the right of the judgment creditor to apply property to the satisfaction of a money judgment pursuant to any applicable procedure other than execution.
Cal.C.C.P. § 708.310. Money judgment against partner or member
If a money judgment is rendered against a partner or member but not against the partnership or limited liability company, the judgment debtor’s interest in the partnership or limited liability company may be applied toward the satisfaction of the judgment by an order charging the judgment debtor’s interest pursuant to Section 15907.3, 16504, or 17705.03 of the Corporations Code.
Cal.C.C.P. § 708.320. Creation of lien on a judgment creditor’s interest in partnership or limited liability company; conditions; effect of issuing charging order
(a) A lien on a judgment debtor’s interest in a partnership or limited liability company is created by service of a notice of motion for a charging order on the judgment debtor and on either of the following:
(1) All partners or the partnership.
(2) All members or the limited liability company.
(b) If a charging order is issued, the lien created pursuant to subdivision (a) continues under the terms of the order. If issuance of the charging order is denied, the lien is extinguished.
Cal.Corp.Code § 16504. Use of transferable interest to satisfy judgment
(a) On application by a judgment creditor of a partner or of a partner’s transferee, a court having jurisdiction may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor to satisfy the judgment. The court may appoint a receiver of the share of the distributions due or to become due to the judgment debtor in respect of the partnership and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries the judgment debtor might have made or that the circumstances of the case may require.
(b) A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor’s transferable interest in the partnership. The court may order a foreclosure of the interest subject to the charging order at any time. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale has the rights of a transferee.
(c) At any time before foreclosure, an interest charged may be redeemed in any of the following manners:
(1) By the judgment debtor.
(2) With property other than partnership property, by one or more of the other partners.
(3) With partnership property, by one or more of the other partners with the consent of all of the partners whose interests are not so charged.
(d) This chapter does not deprive a partner of a right under exemption laws with respect to the partner’s interest in the partnership.
(e) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a partner or partner’s transferee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor’s transferable interest in the partnership.
Cal.Corp.Code § 16801. Conditions of dissolution or winding up of partnership business
A partnership is dissolved, and its business shall be wound up, only upon the occurrence of any of the following events:
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(6) On application by a transferee of a partner’s transferable interest, a judicial determination that it is equitable to wind up the partnership business after the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, if the partnership was for a definite term or particular undertaking at the time of the transfer or entry of the charging order that gave rise to the transfer.
Cal.Corp.Code § 15907.03. Rights of creditor of partner or transferee
(a) On application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any judgment creditor of a partner or transferee, the court may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor with payment of the unsatisfied amount of the judgment with interest. To the extent so charged, the judgment creditor has only the rights of a transferee. The court may appoint a receiver of the share of the distributions due or to become due to the judgment debtor in respect of the limited partnership and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries the judgment debtor might have made or which the circumstances of the case may require to give effect to the charging order.
(b) A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor’s transferable interest. The court may order a foreclosure upon the interest subject to the charging order at any time. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale has the rights of a transferee.
(c) At any time before foreclosure, an interest charged may be redeemed:
(1) by the judgment debtor;
(2) with property other than limited partnership property, by one or more of the other partners; or
(3) with limited partnership property, by the limited partnership with the consent of all partners whose interests are not so charged.
(d) This chapter does not deprive any partner or transferee of the benefit of any exemption laws applicable to the partner’s or transferee’s transferable interest.
(e) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a partner or transferee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor’s transferable interest.
(f) No creditor of a partner shall have any right to obtain possession or otherwise exercise legal or equitable remedies with respect to the property of the limited partnership.
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES
Cal.Corp.Code § 17705.03. Charging order
(a) On application by a judgment creditor of a member or transferee, a court may enter a charging order against the transferable interest of the judgment debtor for the unsatisfied amount of the judgment. A charging order constitutes a lien on a judgment debtor’s transferable interest and requires the limited liability company to pay over to the person to which the charging order was issued any distribution that would otherwise be paid to the judgment debtor.
(b) To the extent necessary to effectuate the collection of distributions pursuant to a charging order in effect under subdivision (a), the court may do any of the following:
(1) Appoint a receiver of the distributions subject to the charging order, with the power to make all inquiries the judgment debtor might have made.
(2) Make all other orders necessary to give effect to the charging order.
(3) Upon a showing that distributions under a charging order will not pay the judgment debt within a reasonable time, foreclose the lien and order the sale of the transferable interest. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale obtains only the transferable interest, does not thereby become a member, and is subject to Section 17705.02.
(c) At any time before foreclosure under paragraph (3) of subdivision (b), the member or transferee whose transferable interest is subject to a charging order under subdivision (a) may extinguish the charging order by satisfying the judgment and filing a certified copy of the satisfaction with the court that issued the charging order.
(d) At any time before foreclosure under paragraph (3) of subdivision (b), a limited liability company or one or more members whose transferable interests are not subject to the charging order may pay to the judgment creditor the full amount due under the judgment and thereby succeed to the rights of the judgment creditor, including the charging order.
(e) This title does not deprive any member or transferee of the benefit of any exemption laws applicable to the member’s or transferee’s transferable interest.
(f) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a person seeking to enforce a judgment against a member or transferee may, in the capacity of judgment creditor, satisfy the judgment from the judgment debtor’s transferable interest.
Cal.Corp.Code § 17701.12. Operating agreement; approval of amendment; effect on third parties and relationship to records effective on behalf of limited liability company
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(b) The obligations of a limited liability company and its members to a person in the person’s capacity as a transferee or dissociated member are governed by the operating agreement. Subject only to any court order issued under paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 17705.03 to effectuate a charging order, an amendment to the operating agreement made after a person becomes a transferee or dissociated member is effective with regard to any debt, obligation, or other liability of the limited liability company or its members to the person in the person’s capacity as a transferee or dissociated member.
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Cal.Corp.Code § 17704.04. Sharing of and right to distributions before dissolution; allocation of profits and losses
(a) Any distributions made by a limited liability company before its dissolution and winding up shall be among the members in accordance with the operating agreement. If the operating agreement does not otherwise provide, distributions shall be on the basis of the value, as stated in the required records when the limited liability company decides to make the distribution, of the contributions the limited liability company has received from each member, except to the extent necessary to comply with any transfer effective under Section 17705.02 and any charging order in effect under Section 17705.03.
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Cal.Corp.Code § 17706.02. Events causing dissociation
A person is dissociated as a member from a limited liability company when any of the following occur:
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(d) The person is expelled as a member by the unanimous consent of the other members because any of the following applies:
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(2) There has been a transfer of all of the person’s transferable interest in the limited liability company, other than either of the following:
(A) A transfer for security purposes.
(B) A charging order in effect under Section 17705.03 that has not been foreclosed.
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More Articles On Charging Orders click here
LAW REVIEW ARTICLES
by Jay Adkisson
For more on the historical background of Charging Orders and contemporary issues involving the same, see Jay Adkisson's article, Charging Orders: The Peculiar Mechanism, 61 South Dakota Law Review 440 (2016). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2928487
Analysis of Uniform Limited Liability Company Act Sections re Charging Orders
The Uniform Acts re Charging Orders and Transferable Interests (without Jay's comments):
Effect of Bankruptcy On The Debtor-Member's LLC Interest here
Collected Court Opinions On Charging Orders here and below
NATURE OF REMEDY
Distributions/Economic Rights - Creditors rights to distributional interests/economic rights
Prejudgment Relief - Freezing the interest and distributions pending judgment
Entities - The types of legal entities amenable to charging orders, or not
Procedure - The procedure for obtaining a charging order and ancillary provisions
Unknown Interest - Where the debtor's interest, if any, has not been ascertained
Order Form Generally - Most issues to the form of the charging order
Order Form Future Interests - How the charging order affects subsequently-acquired interests
Exemptions - Available state and federal protections that may apply to charging orders
Abstention - Collateral attacks on charging orders in federal court
Conflicts-Of-Law - Determining which state's laws apply to a charging order dispute
Jurisdiction - Issues relating to the court's authority over out-of-state debtors and LLCs
Foreign Entities - Charging orders against out-of-state entities
Creditor Rights Restrictions - Limitations on creditors' management and informational rights
Information Rights - Creditors' ability to access information about the LLC
Management & Voting Rights - Rights of creditor after charging order issued
LIEN EFFECT AND PRIORITY
Lien - The lien effect of a charging order and priority issues
Compliance - Issues for the LLC and non-debtor members in complying with a charging order
Receiver - The role of the receiver in charging order proceedings
SINGLE MEMBER LLC
Single-Member LLCs - Enforcing the judgment against an LLC with a sole member
Foreclosure - Liquidation by judicial sale of the debtor's right to distributions
REPURCHASE AND REDEMPTION RIGHTS
Repurchase/Redemption Rights - Third-parties' ability to purchase the charged interest
Appeal - Issues relating to the appeal of a charging order
RELATION TO OTHER REMEDIES
Exclusivity - The charging order as the sole remedy available to creditors and exceptions
Voidable Transactions/Fraudulent Transfers - Issues relating to avoidable transfers of interests
Abstention - Attempts to collaterally attack the charging order in federal court
Bankruptcy - Treatment of the debtor/member's interest in bankruptcy
Intra-Member Disputes - Where one member obtains a charging order against another
Taxes - Tax issues relating to charging orders for all involved parties
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Additional Court Opinions About charging orders (unsorted)
THE CHARGING ORDERS PRACTICE GUIDE
The Charging Order Practice Guide: Understanding Judgment Creditor Rights Against LLC Members, by Jay D. Adkisson (2018), published by the LLCs, Partnerships and Unincorporated Entities Committee of the Business Law Section of the American Bar Association, click here for more
Available for purchase directly from the ABA at https://goo.gl/faZzY6
Also available from Amazon at https://www.amazon.com/Charging-Orders-Practice-Guide-Understanding/dp/1641052643
OTHER INFORMATIONAL WEBSITES
by Jay Adkisson
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© 2021 Jay D. Adkisson. All Rights Reserved. No claim to government works or the works of the Uniform Law Commission. The information contained in this website is for general educational purposes only, does not constitute any legal advice or opinion, and should not be relied upon in relation to particular cases. Use this information at your own peril; it is no substitute for the legal advice or opinion of an attorney licensed to practice law in the appropriate jurisdiction. This site is https://chargingorder.com Contact: jay [at] jayad.com or by phone to 702-953-9617 or by fax to 877-698-0678.