The Creditor's Remedy Against A Debtor's Interest In An LLC Or Partnership
Colorado Charging Order
C.R.S. § 7-60-128. Interest subject to charging order
(1) On due application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any judgment creditor of a partner, the court that entered the judgment, order, or decree, or any other court, may charge the interest of the debtor partner with payment of the unsatisfied amount of the judgment with interest thereon; and may then or later appoint a receiver of the debtor partner's share of the profits and of any other money due or to fall due to the debtor partner in respect of the partnership and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries that the debtor partner might have made, or that the circumstances of the case may require.
(2) The interest charged may be redeemed at any time before foreclosure or, in case of a sale being directed by the court, may be purchased without thereby causing a dissolution:
(a) With separate property by any one or more of the partners; or
(b) With partnership property by any one or more of the partners with the consent of all the partners whose interests are not so charged or sold.
(3) Nothing in this article shall be held to deprive a partner of the partner's right, if any, under the exemption laws, as regards the partner's interest in the partnership.
C.R.S. § 7-64-504. Partner's transferable interest subject to charging order
(1) On application by a judgment creditor of a partner or of a partner's transferee, a court having jurisdiction may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor to satisfy the judgment. The court may appoint a receiver of the share of the distributions due or to become due to the judgment debtor in respect of the partnership and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries the judgment debtor might have made or which the circumstances of the case may require.
(2) A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the partnership. The court may order a foreclosure of the transferable interest subject to the charging order at any time. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale has the rights of a transferee.
(3) At any time before foreclosure, a transferable interest charged may be redeemed:
(a) By the judgment debtor;
(b) With property other than partnership property, by one or more of the other partners; or
(c) By the partnership with the consent of all of the partners whose transferable interests are not so charged or with such lesser consent as may be permitted by the partnership agreement.
(4) This article does not deprive a partner of a right under exemption laws with respect to the partner's transferable interest in the partnership.
(5) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a partner or partner's transferee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the partnership.
C.R.S. § 7-61-123. Rights of creditors of limited partner
(1) On due application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any creditor of a limited partner, the court may charge the interest of the indebted limited partner with payment of the unsatisfied amount of such claim and may appoint a receiver and make all other orders, directions, and inquiries which the circumstances of the case may require.
(2) The interest may be redeemed with the separate property of any general partner but may not be redeemed with partnership property.
(3) The remedies conferred by subsection (1) of this section shall not be deemed exclusive of others which may exist.
(4) Nothing in this article shall be held to deprive a limited partner of the limited partner's statutory exemption.
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES
C.R.S. § 7-80-703. Rights of creditor against a member
On application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any judgment creditor of a member, the court may charge the membership interest of the member with payment of the unsatisfied amount of the judgment with interest thereon and may then or later appoint a receiver of the member's share of the profits and of any other money due or to become due to the member in respect of the limited liability company and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries that the debtor member might have made, or that the circumstances of the case may require. To the extent so charged, except as provided in this section, the judgment creditor has only the rights of an assignee or transferee of the membership interest. The membership interest charged may be redeemed at any time before foreclosure. If the sale is directed by the court, the membership interest may be purchased without causing a dissolution with separate property by any one or more of the members. With the consent of all members whose membership interests are not being charged or sold, the membership interest may be purchased without causing a dissolution with property of the limited liability company. This article shall not deprive any member of the benefit of any exemption laws applicable to the member's membership interest.
LIMITED COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS
C.R.S. § 7-58-605. Charging orders for judgment creditor of member or transferee
(1) On application by a judgment creditor of a member or transferee, a court may enter a charging order against the financial rights of the judgment debtor for the unsatisfied amount of the judgment. A charging order issued under this subsection (1) constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor's financial rights and requires the limited cooperative association to pay over to the creditor or receiver, to the extent necessary to satisfy the judgment, any distribution that would otherwise be paid to the judgment debtor.
(2) To the extent necessary to effectuate the collection of distributions pursuant to a charging order under subsection (1) of this section, the court may:
(a) Appoint a receiver of the share of the distributions due or to become due to the judgment debtor under the judgment debtor's financial rights, with the power to make all inquiries the judgment debtor might have made; and
(b) Make all other orders that the circumstances of the case may require to give effect to the charging order.
(3) Upon a showing that distributions under a charging order will not pay the judgment debt within a reasonable time, the court may foreclose the lien and order the sale of the financial rights. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale obtains only the financial rights that are subject to the charging order, does not thereby become a member, and is subject to section 7-58-603.
(4) At any time before a sale pursuant to a foreclosure, a member or transferee whose financial rights are subject to a charging order under subsection (1) of this section may extinguish the charging order by satisfying the judgment and filing a certified copy of the satisfaction with the court that issued the charging order.
(5) At any time before sale pursuant to a foreclosure, the limited cooperative association or one or more members whose financial rights are not subject to the charging order may pay to the judgment creditor the full amount due under the judgment and succeed to the rights of the judgment creditor, including the charging order. Unless the articles or bylaws otherwise provide, the association may act under this subsection (5) only with the consent of all members whose financial rights are not subject to the charging order.
(6) This article does not deprive any member or transferee of the benefit of any exemption laws applicable to the member's or transferee's financial rights.
(7) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a member or transferee may satisfy the judgment from the member's or transferee's financial rights.
by Jay Adkisson
2021.06.17 ... Delaware Chancery Court Navigates Around Charging Order Exclusivity And Recognizes Reverse Veil-Piercing
2021.03.30 ... Some Random Musings About Single-Member LLCs Versus Multiple-Member LLCs
2021.03.27 ... Collateral Attack On Charging Order Via Federal Court Fails In Kerr
2021.02.21 ... Creditor’s Early Motion For A Receiver Gets The Kabosh In Medipro Case
2021.02.15 ... Debtor’s Large LLC Distribution To Circumvent Charging Order Draws Ire Of Non-Debtor Member In Bargreen
2021.01.19 ... Equitable Remedy To Circumvent Charging Order Exclusivity Denied In Ramos
More Articles On Charging Orders click here
LAW REVIEW ARTICLES
by Jay Adkisson
For more on the historical background of Charging Orders and contemporary issues involving the same, see Jay Adkisson's article, Charging Orders: The Peculiar Mechanism, 61 South Dakota Law Review 440 (2016). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2928487
Analysis of Uniform Limited Liability Company Act Sections re Charging Orders
The Uniform Acts re Charging Orders and Transferable Interests (without Jay's comments):
Effect of Bankruptcy On The Debtor-Member's LLC Interest here
Collected Court Opinions On Charging Orders here and below
NATURE OF REMEDY
Distributions/Economic Rights - Creditors rights to distributional interests/economic rights
Prejudgment Relief - Freezing the interest and distributions pending judgment
Procedure - The procedure for obtaining a charging order and ancillary provisions
Unknown Interest - Where the debtor's interest, if any, has not been ascertained
Order Form Generally - Most issues to the form of the charging order
Order Form Future Interests - How the charging order affects subsequently-acquired interests
Exemptions - Available state and federal protections that may apply to charging orders
Conflicts-Of-Law - Determining which state's laws apply to a charging order dispute
Jurisdiction - Issues relating to the court's authority over out-of-state debtors and LLCs
Foreign Entities - Charging orders against out-of-state entities
Creditor Rights Restrictions - Limitations on creditors' management and informational rights
Information Rights - Creditors' ability to access information about the LLC
Management & Voting Rights - Rights of creditor after charging order issued
LIEN EFFECT AND PRIORITY
Lien - The lien effect of a charging order and priority issues
Compliance - Issues for the LLC and non-debtor members in complying with a charging order
Receiver - The role of the receiver in charging order proceedings
SINGLE MEMBER LLC
Single-Member LLCs - Enforcing the judgment against an LLC with a sole member
Foreclosure - Liquidation by judicial sale of the debtor's right to distributions
REPURCHASE AND REDEMPTION RIGHTS
Repurchase/Redemption Rights - Third-parties' ability to purchase the charged interest
Appeal - Issues relating to the appeal of a charging order
RELATION TO OTHER REMEDIES
Exclusivity - The charging order as the sole remedy available to creditors and exceptions
Voidable Transactions/Fraudulent Transfers - Issues relating to avoidable transfers of interests
Abstention - Attempts to collaterally attack the charging order in federal court
Bankruptcy - Treatment of the debtor/member's interest in bankruptcy
Intra-Member Disputes - Where one member obtains a charging order against another
Taxes - Tax issues relating to charging orders for all involved parties
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Additional Court Opinions About charging orders (unsorted)
THE CHARGING ORDERS PRACTICE GUIDE
The Charging Order Practice Guide: Understanding Judgment Creditor Rights Against LLC Members, by Jay D. Adkisson (2018), published by the LLCs, Partnerships and Unincorporated Entities Committee of the Business Law Section of the American Bar Association, click here for more
Available for purchase directly from the ABA at https://goo.gl/faZzY6
Also available from Amazon at https://www.amazon.com/Charging-Orders-Practice-Guide-Understanding/dp/1641052643
OTHER INFORMATIONAL WEBSITES
by Jay Adkisson
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© 2021 Jay D. Adkisson. All Rights Reserved. No claim to government works or the works of the Uniform Law Commission. The information contained in this website is for general educational purposes only, does not constitute any legal advice or opinion, and should not be relied upon in relation to particular cases. Use this information at your own peril; it is no substitute for the legal advice or opinion of an attorney licensed to practice law in the appropriate jurisdiction. This site is https://chargingorder.com Contact: jay [at] jayad.com or by phone to 702-953-9617 or by fax to 877-698-0678.