New Hampshire Charging Order Creditor Debtor




The Creditor's Remedy Against A Debtor's Interest In An LLC Or Partnership


New Hampshire Charging Order




N.H. Rev. Stat. § 304-A:28. Partner's Interest Subject to Charging Order.


I. On due application to a superior court by any judgment creditor of a partner, the court may charge the interest of the debtor partner with payment of the unsatisfied amount of such judgment debt with interest thereon; and may then or later appoint a receiver of his share of the profits, and of any other money due or to fall due to him in respect to the partnership, and make all other orders, functions, accounts and inquiries which the circumstances of the case may require.


II. The interest charged may be redeemed at any time before foreclosure, or in case of a sale being directed by the court may be purchased without thereby causing a dissolution:


(a) With separate property, by any one or more of the partners, or


(b) With partnership property, by any one or more of the partners with the consent of all the partners whose interests are not so charged or sold.


III. Nothing in this chapter shall be held to deprive a partner of his right, if any, under the exemption laws, as regards his interest in the partnership.




N.H. Rev. Stat. § 304-B:41. Rights of Creditor.


On application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any judgment creditor of a partner, the court may charge the partnership interest of the partner with payment of the unsatisfied amount of the judgment with interest. To the extent so charged, the judgment creditor has only the rights of an assignee of the partnership interest. This chapter does not deprive any partner of the benefit of any exemption laws applicable to his partnership interest.




N.H. Rev. Stat. § 304-C:126. Charging Orders.


I. On application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any judgment creditor of (a) a member of a limited liability company (the “debtor-member”) or (b) a transferee of all or any part of a member's limited liability company interest (a “transferee”), the court may enter a charging order against the limited liability company in respect of the limited liability company interest of the debtor-member or the transferee for the unsatisfied amount of the judgment plus interest.




(a) A charging order constitutes a lien on a debtor-member's or transferee's limited liability company interest.


(b) Under a charging order, a judgment creditor has only the right to receive distributions to which the debtor-member or transferee would otherwise have been entitled from the limited liability company, and only to the extent of the judgment, including interest.


(c) A judgment debtor that obtains a charging order does not thereby become the holder of the debtor-member's or transferee's limited liability company interest.


III. This section does not deprive any judgment debtor of the benefit of any exemption law applicable to the judgment debtor's membership rights.


IV. Except as provided in paragraphs VI and VII, a charging order is the sole and exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a debtor-member may satisfy a judgment from a debtor-member's membership rights or from the assets of a limited liability company. This section is not exclusive as to the rights of creditors with respect to the limited liability company interests of transferees.




(a) The remedy of execution upon a debtor-member's membership rights shall be unavailable to a judgment creditor attempting to satisfy a judgment against a debtor-member of a multi-member limited liability company.


(b) Except as provided in paragraph VI, the remedy of execution upon a debtor-member's membership rights shall be unavailable to a judgment creditor attempting to satisfy a judgment against a debtor-member of a single-member limited liability company.




(a) If a judgment creditor shows to the satisfaction of a court of competent jurisdiction that distributions under a charging order in respect of the limited liability company interest of a debtor-member of a single-member limited liability company will not satisfy the judgment within a reasonable time, a charging order shall not be the sole and exclusive remedy by which the judgment creditor may satisfy the judgment against the member.


(b) Upon such a showing, the court may order the sale of the debtor-member's membership rights under an execution sale.


(c) A judgment creditor may make a showing to the court under subparagraph (a) that distributions under a charging order will not satisfy a judgment either (1) when the judgment creditor applies for the entry of a charging order under a member of a single-member limited liability company or (2) at any time thereafter.


VII. If, under paragraph VI, a court orders an execution sale of the membership rights of a debtor-member that is the member of a single-member limited liability company:


(a) The purchaser shall obtain all of the member's membership rights and not merely the rights of an transferee;


(b) The purchaser shall become the member of the limited liability company; and


(c) The debtor-member whose membership rights have been sold shall cease to be a member.


VIII. Nothing in this section shall limit:


(a) The rights of a creditor that has been granted a consensual security interest in the limited liability company interest or other membership rights of a member to pursue the remedies available to the secured creditor under other law applicable to secured creditors;


(b) The principles of law and equity which affect fraudulent transfers;


(c) The availability of the equitable principles of veil-piercing, equitable lien, or constructive trust, or other equitable principles not inconsistent with this section; or


(d) The continuing jurisdiction of the court to enforce its charging order in a manner consistent with this section.


IX. In any action in a court of this state in which a judgment creditor seeks a charging order against a member or transferee of a foreign limited liability company, this section shall apply.



by Jay Adkisson


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More Articles On Charging Orders click here



by Jay Adkisson


For more on the historical background of Charging Orders and contemporary issues involving the same, see Jay Adkisson's article, Charging Orders: The Peculiar Mechanism, 61 South Dakota Law Review 440 (2016). Available at SSRN:



General Information


Analysis of Uniform Limited Liability Company Act Sections re Charging Orders

  • Charging Orders (Section 503) contains the general charging order provisions.
  • Transfers of Transferable Interests (Section 502) includes definitions of "transfer" (102(23)), "transferable interests" (102(24)), and "transferees" (102(25)) defines to what the charging order attaches.
  • Definition of Distribution (Section 102(4)) specifies the economic right obtained through a charging order lien and/or foreclosure.


The Uniform Acts re Charging Orders and Transferable Interests (without Jay's comments):


Effect of Bankruptcy On The Debtor-Member's LLC Interest here



Collected Court Opinions On Charging Orders here and below


Charging Order Example Sample Form





     Distributions/Economic Rights - Creditors rights to distributional interests/economic rights


     Prejudgment Relief - Freezing the interest and distributions pending judgment


     Entities - The types of legal entities amenable to charging orders, or not

     Procedure - The procedure for obtaining a charging order and ancillary provisions

     Unknown Interest - Where the debtor's interest, if any, has not been ascertained

     Order Form Generally - Most issues to the form of the charging order

     Order Form Future Interests - How the charging order affects subsequently-acquired interests

     Exemptions - Available state and federal protections that may apply to charging orders


     Abstention - Collateral attacks on charging orders in federal court

     Conflicts-Of-Law - Determining which state's laws apply to a charging order dispute

     Jurisdiction - Issues relating to the court's authority over out-of-state debtors and LLCs

     Foreign Entities - Charging orders against out-of-state entities


     Creditor Rights Restrictions - Limitations on creditors' management and informational rights

     Information Rights - Creditors' ability to access information about the LLC

     Management & Voting Rights - Rights of creditor after charging order issued


     Lien - The lien effect of a charging order and priority issues


     Compliance - Issues for the LLC and non-debtor members in complying with a charging order

     Receiver - The role of the receiver in charging order proceedings


     Single-Member LLCs - Enforcing the judgment against an LLC with a sole member


     Foreclosure - Liquidation by judicial sale of the debtor's right to distributions


     Repurchase/Redemption Rights - Third-parties' ability to purchase the charged interest


     Appeal - Issues relating to the appeal of a charging order


     Exclusivity - The charging order as the sole remedy available to creditors and exceptions

     Voidable Transactions/Fraudulent Transfers - Issues relating to avoidable transfers of interests


     Abstention - Attempts to collaterally attack the charging order in federal court

     Bankruptcy - Treatment of the debtor/member's interest in bankruptcy

     Intra-Member Disputes - Where one member obtains a charging order against another

     Taxes - Tax issues relating to charging orders for all involved parties


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List Of Court Opinion Sections

Additional Court Opinions About charging orders (unsorted)




The Charging Order Practice Guide: Understanding Judgment Creditor Rights Against LLC Members, by Jay D. Adkisson (2018), published by the LLCs, Partnerships and Unincorporated Entities Committee of the Business Law Section of the American Bar Association, click here for more


Available for purchase directly from the ABA at


Also available from Amazon at


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  • California Enforcement of Judgments Law - Considers the topic of judgment enforcement in California, including the California Enforcement of Judgments Law and other laws related to California creditor-debtor issues.


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  • Captive Insurance - Licensed insurance companies formed by the parent organization to handle the insurance and risk management needs of the business.


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